Tag: KEK

Implementing AS2805 Part 6 Host to Host Encryption using a Thales 9000 and Python

Introduction

The AS2805.6 Standard specifies communication security between two nodes during a financial transaction. These nodes needs to have a specific set of encryption algorithms, and needs to follow a specific process.

The specification is not very clear on what exactly needs to happen, so I intend to clarify the exact steps, with the HSM functions. Now in order to do this I will assume you have a Thales 9000 HSM, as well as you need to know how to properly operate it. All commands defined are in the 1270A547-015 Australian Standards LIC003 v2.3a.pdf Manual provided by Thales when purchasing the device.

Source Code

a Copy of this Manual can be found  here  [Thales 9000 Australian Standards LIC003 v2.3a]

a Copy of my AS2805  parser is located here

a Copy of my Thales commands class is located here

a Full version of a AS2805 Interchange Node is located here

KEK Process (Level 1)

For this process:

  1. you need to go to your HSM and generate 2 Clear components, you then need to form a KEKs key from these components. This can be done using the UI of the HSM manger, or with the FK console command.
  2. Store the KEKs formed from the clear components in your switch database.
  3. Your connecting node / host will then provide you with a set of clear components, you need to generate a key again, but in this case a KEKr
  4. You need to provide you host with your key components you generated in Step 1,so they can generate their corresponding KEKs.

Now you have a KEKr and a KEKs in your database as well as your host read,  for Level2

Session and MAC key Initialisation (Level 2)

This Level has 2 separate steps, the first step (Logon) validating the KEKr and KEKs so that both nodes know that the correct keys are being used. The second step (Key Exchange) is to create temporary keys that are changed every 60 minutes or 256 transactions.

Logon Process

 

During the logon process your HSM will need to generate 2 things:

  1. a Random Number (RN)
  2. an Inverted Random Number (~RN)

These numbers will be returned encrypted under the KEKr and KEKs, and you will need to validate them, this is also called end of proof point validation.

The Logon process is a 2 step process outlined in the image below.

Logon_process
Step 1

When you connect to your host you will receive a logon request, bit number 48 will be populated with a KRs from the host that you will need to validate with your KEKr.

Generating a KEKr Validation Response you would need your KRs received in this request, and you KEKr that you generated from your host components.

E2 Command Definition: To receive a random key (KRs) encrypted under a variant of a double length Key Encrypting Key (KEKr), compute from KRs another value, denoted KRr and encrypt it under another variant of the KEKr

Your HSM command will look as follows: >HEADE2{KEKr}{KRs} and you output will generate a KEKr. Your response to the host will need to include this value in bit number 48.

Step 2

You now need to send the host a logon request with bit 48 set with your KRs

E0 Command Definition:To generate a random key (KRs) and encrypt it with a variant of a double length Key Encrypting Key (KEKs). In addition, KRs is inverted (to form KRr) and the result encrypted with another variant of the KEKs.

Your HSM command will look as follows: >HEADE0{KEKs} and the output will generate a KRs.  Your host will validate this request, and return with a response.

Once both steps are complete, both you and the host has been validated that you are using the same keys.

An Example of this process is outlined below in Python:

 

 def __signon__Part1__(self):
 self.log.info("====Sign-On Process Started ====")
 self.__setState('signing_on')
 cur = self.con_switch.cursor(MySQLdb.cursors.DictCursor)

 try:
 self.log.info("Waiting for 0800 Request")
 self.s.settimeout(20.0)
 length_indicator = self.s.recv(2)
 if length_indicator == '':
 self.log.critical('Received a blank length indicator from switch... might be a disconnect')
 self.__setState("blank_response")
 else:
 size = struct.unpack('!H', length_indicator)[0]
 payload = self.s.recv(size)
 payload = ByteUtils.ByteToHex(payload)
 d = datetime.now()
 self.log.info(" Getting Sign-On Request 0800 = [%s]" % payload)
 if payload == '':
 self.log.critical('Received a blank response from switch... might be a disconnect')
 self.__setState("blank_response")
 else:
 iso_ans = AS2805(debug=False)
 iso_ans.setIsoContent(payload)


 self.__storeISOMessage(iso_ans, {"date_time_received": d.strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S")})
 if iso_ans.getMTI() == '0800':
 if iso_ans.getBit(70) == '001':
 #log.info("Logon Started with KEKr = %s, KEKs = %s" % ( self.KEKr, self.KEKs))
 KRs = iso_ans.getBit(48)
 #log.info("KRs %s Received from Host" % (KRs))
 #print "Generating a E0 Command with KEKr=%s, and KRs=%s" % (self.KEKr, KRs)
 self.ValidationResponse = KeyGenerator.Generate_KEKr_Validation_Response(KEKr=self.KEKr, KRs=KRs)
 #print self.ValidationResponse

 if self.ValidationResponse["ErrorCode"] == '00':
 #log.info("KRs Validation Response %s generated" % (self.ValidationResponse["KRr"]))
 d = datetime.now()
 iso_resp = AS2805(debug=False)
 iso_resp.setMTI('0810')
 iso_resp.setBit(7, d.strftime("%m%d%H%M%S"))
 iso_resp.setBit(11, iso_ans.getBit(11))
 iso_resp.setBit(33, self.Switch_IIN)
 iso_resp.setBit(39, '303')
 iso_resp.setBit(48, self.ValidationResponse["KRr"])
 iso_resp.setBit(70, '0001')
 iso_resp.setBit(100, self.Switch_IIN)

 iso_send = iso_resp.getNetworkISO()
 iso_send_hex = ByteUtils.HexToByte(iso_send[2:])
 self.log.info("Sending Sign-On Response 0810 [%s]" % ReadableAscii(iso_send))
 self.__send_message(iso_send_hex)
 self.__storeISOMessage(iso_resp, {"date_time_sent": d.strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S")})
 self.__setState('signed_on')
 else:
 self.log.error("0810 KRr Response Code = %s, Login Failed" % (self.ValidationResponse["ErrorCode"],))
 #TODO: Send Decline to the Partner

 else:
 self.log.error("Could not login with 0810")



 except InvalidAS2805, ii:
 self.log.error(ii)
 except socket.error as e:
 pass
 self.log.debug("nothing from host [%s]" % (e))
 except:
 #self.__signoff()
 self.log.exception("signon_failed")
 self.__setState("singon_failed")
 finally:
 cur.close()

 def __signon_Part2__(self):

 try:
 self.s.settimeout(20.0)
 self.ValidationRequest = KeyGenerator.Generate_KEKs_Validation_Request(KEKs=self.KEKs)
 d = datetime.now()
 iso_resp = AS2805(debug=False)
 iso_resp.setMTI('0800')
 iso_resp.setBit(7, d.strftime("%m%d%H%M%S"))
 iso_resp.setBit(11, self.__getNextStanNo())
 iso_resp.setBit(33, self.HostIIN)
 iso_resp.setBit(48, self.ValidationRequest["KRs"])
 iso_resp.setBit(70, '001')
 iso_resp.setBit(100, self.HostIIN)
 iso_send = iso_resp.getNetworkISO()
 iso_send_hex = ByteUtils.HexToByte(iso_send[2:])

 self.log.info("Sending Sign-On Request 0800 [%s]" % ReadableAscii(iso_send))
 self.__send_message(iso_send_hex)
 self.__storeISOMessage(iso_resp, {"date_time_sent": d.strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S")})

 self.log.info("Waiting for 0810 Response")
 a = self.s.recv(8192)
 payload = ByteUtils.ByteToHex(a[2:])
 d = datetime.now()
 self.log.info(" Getting Sign-On Response 0810 = [%s]" % payload)
 iso_ans = AS2805(debug=False)
 iso_ans.setIsoContent(payload)
 self.log.debug(iso_ans.dumpFields())
 self.__storeISOMessage(iso_ans, {"date_time_received": d.strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S")})
 if iso_ans.getBit(39) == '3030':
 self.log.info("====Sign-On Sequence Completed Successfully====")
 self.__setState("signed_on_dual")
 else:
 #self.__signoff()
 self.log.error("Could not login with 0800")
 self.__setState("singon_failed")
 except InvalidAS2805, ii:
 self.log.info(ii)
 except socket.error as e:
 self.log.info("nothing from host [%s]" % (e))
 except:
 #self.__signoff()
 self.log.exception("signon_failed")
 self.__setState("singon_failed")

 

Key Exchange (Level 2)

In the Key Exchange process, you will generate session keys for your node as well as MAC keys. Now when generating these keys, you need to remember that they need to be the same type as you partner node. (simply ask your processor for a trace if you want to confirm)

So right after a successful logon, you would need to wait for a key exchange request, (0820 with field 30 as 303) this key exchange request will have  a ZAK and a ZPK in field 48, these are encrypted under the KEKr generated on your host from their components. You would need to translate these keys using your KEKr under your LMK and generate check values for verification.

The command will look like follows: >HEADOK{KEKr}21H{ZPK}1H{ZAK}0H11111111111111111111111111111111

These keys are known as your: RECEIVE KEYS

Where the KEKr is the KEKr generated from your components, ZPK and ZAK is the ZPK and ZAK received. This will output the following:

def Translate_a_Set_of_Zone_Keys(KEKr, ZPK, ZAK, ZEK):
 response = KeyClass.execute_Translate_a_Set_of_Zone_Keys(KEKr, ZPK, ZAK, ZEK)
 #print response
 TranslatedZoneKeys = {}
 TranslatedZoneKeys["Header"] = response[2:6]
 TranslatedZoneKeys["ResponseCode"] = response[6:8]
 TranslatedZoneKeys["ErrorCode"] = response[8:10]
 if TranslatedZoneKeys["ErrorCode"] == '00':
 TranslatedZoneKeys["KCV Processing Flag"] = response[10:11]
 TranslatedZoneKeys["ZPK(LMK)"] = response[11:44]
 TranslatedZoneKeys["ZPK Check Value"] = response[44:50]
 TranslatedZoneKeys["ZAK(LMK)"] = response[50:83]
 TranslatedZoneKeys["ZAK Check Value"] = response[83:89]
 TranslatedZoneKeys["ZEK(LMK)"] = response[89:122]
 TranslatedZoneKeys["ZEK Check Value"] = response[122:128]
 return TranslatedZoneKeys

In other words, you need to generate the same keys, but under your LMK and store them in your key database

Now whenever you get a request from your host with a mac you can validate the mac using the ZAK(LMK), and when you get encrypted values from your host you can translate the values using the ZPK(LMK)

So, when you respond to the key exchange process you put the check values in field 40. Your host will validate the check values, and then wait for you to send a request using your KEKs.

Here is an implementation using Python:

def __key_exchange_listen(self):
 self.log.info("===== Key Exchange process Started =======")
 self.s.settimeout(20.0)
 length_indicator = self.s.recv(2)
 if length_indicator == '':
 self.log.critical('Received a blank length indicator from switch... might be a disconnect')
 self.__setState("blank_response")
 else:
 size = struct.unpack('!H', length_indicator)[0]
 payload = self.s.recv(size)
 payload = ByteUtils.ByteToHex(payload)
 d = datetime.now()
 self.log.info(" Receiving Key Exchange Request = [%s]" % payload)
 if payload == '':
 self.log.critical('Received a blank response from switch... might be a disconnect')
 self.__setState("blank_response")
 else:
 iso_ans = AS2805(debug=False)
 iso_ans.setIsoContent("%s" % (payload))
 self.log.debug(iso_ans.dumpFields())

 self.__storeISOMessage(iso_ans, {"date_time_received": d.strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S")})
 if iso_ans.getMTI() == '0820' and iso_ans.getBit(70) == '0101':
 Value = iso_ans.getBit(48)
 self.ZAK = Value[:32]
 self.ZPK = Value[32:]

 self.node_number = iso_ans.getBit(53)
 log.info("Recieve Keys under ZMK : ZAK= %s, ZPK = %s" % (self.ZAK, self.ZPK ))

 self.ZoneKeySet2 = KeyGenerator.Translate_a_Set_of_Zone_Keys(self.KEKr,ZPK=self.ZPK, ZAK=self.ZAK, ZEK='11111111111111111111111111111111')
 cur = self.con_switch.cursor(MySQLdb.cursors.DictCursor)
 sql = """UPDATE sessions_as2805 set
 ZPK_LMK = '%s',
 ZPK_ZMK = '%s',
 ZPK_Check ='%s',
 ZAK_LMK = '%s' ,
 ZAK_ZMK = '%s',
 ZAK_Check = '%s',
 ZEK_LMK = '%s',
 ZEK_Check = '%s',
 keyset_number = '%s'
 WHERE host_id = '%s' and keyset_description = 'Recieve' """ %\
 (
 self.ZoneKeySet2["ZPK(LMK)"],
 self.ZPK,
 self.ZoneKeySet2["ZPK Check Value"],
 self.ZoneKeySet2["ZAK(LMK)"],
 self.ZAK,
 self.ZoneKeySet2["ZAK Check Value"],
 self.ZoneKeySet2["ZEK(LMK)"],
 self.ZoneKeySet2["ZEK Check Value"],
 self.node_number,
 self.host_id)
 log.info("Recieve Keys under LMK : ZAK= %s, ZAK Check Value: %s ZPK = %s, ZPK Check Value: %s" % (self.ZoneKeySet2["ZAK(LMK)"], self.ZoneKeySet2["ZAK Check Value"], self.ZoneKeySet2["ZPK(LMK)"], self.ZoneKeySet2["ZPK Check Value"]))
 cur.execute(sql)
 self.log.debug("Records=%s" % (cur.rowcount,))
 iso_req = AS2805(debug=False)
 iso_req.setMTI('0830')
 iso_req.setBit(7, iso_ans.getBit(7))
 iso_req.setBit(11, iso_ans.getBit(11))
 iso_req.setBit(33, iso_ans.getBit(33))
 iso_req.setBit(39, '303')
 iso_req.setBit(48, self.ZoneKeySet2["ZAK Check Value"] + self.ZoneKeySet2["ZPK Check Value"])
 iso_req.setBit(53, iso_ans.getBit(53))
 iso_req.setBit(70, iso_ans.getBit(70))
 iso_req.setBit(100, iso_ans.getBit(100))
 self.__storeISOMessage(iso_req, {"date_time_sent": d.strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S")})
 try:

 iso_send = iso_req.getNetworkISO()
 iso_send_hex = ByteUtils.HexToByte(iso_send[2:])

 self.log.debug(iso_req.dumpFields())
 self.log.info("Sending Key Exchange Response = [%s]" % ReadableAscii(iso_send))
 self.__send_message(iso_send_hex)
 self.node_number = iso_ans.getBit(53)
 except:
 self.log.exception("key_exchange_failed")
 self.__setState('key_exchange_failed')

 finally:
 cur.close()

 

These Keys are known as your SEND KEYS

So when you send a key exchange request you would need to generate a set of zone keys, this command on your HSM would look like this;

>HEADOI{KEKs};HU;1

Where the KEKs is the KEKs that you generated from your components, and your output will be the following:

def Generate_a_Set_of_Zone_Keys(KEKs):
 response = KeyClass.execute_get_a_Set_of_Zone_Keys(KEKs)
 #print response
 ZoneKeys = {}
 ZoneKeys["Header"] = response[2:6]
 ZoneKeys["ResponseCode"] = response[6:8]
 ZoneKeys["ErrorCode"] = response[8:10]
 if ZoneKeys["ErrorCode"] == '00':
 ZoneKeys["ZPK(LMK)"] = response[10:43]
 ZoneKeys["ZPK(ZMK)"] = response[43:76]
 ZoneKeys["ZPK Check Value"] = response[76:82]
 ZoneKeys["ZAK(LMK)"] = response[82:115]
 ZoneKeys["ZAK(ZMK)"] = response[115:148]
 ZoneKeys["ZAK Check Value"] = response[148:154]
 ZoneKeys["ZEK(LMK)"] = response[154:187]
 ZoneKeys["ZEK(ZMK)"] = response[187:220]
 ZoneKeys["ZEK Check Value"] = response[220:226]
 return ZoneKeys

Now when sending your  0820 request, you need to set field 40 as ZAK(ZMK) + ZPK(ZMK). Your host will do a Validation request (same as you did in step 1) and send you the check values. you need to compare this to the check values generated by your OI command, and if they match then you have successfully exchanged keys.

Below is an implementation using Python:

 

 def __keyExchange__(self):
 self.__setState("key_exchange")

 self.__key_exchange_listen()


 cur = self.con_switch.cursor(MySQLdb.cursors.DictCursor)
 d = datetime.now()
 self.ZoneKeySet1 = {}
 self.ZoneKeySet2 = {}
 self.ZoneKeySet1 = KeyGenerator.Generate_a_Set_of_Zone_Keys(self.KEKs)


 iso_req = AS2805(debug=False)
 iso_req.setMTI('0820')
 iso_req.setBit(7, d.strftime("%m%d%H%M%S"))
 iso_req.setBit(11, self.__getNextStan())
 iso_req.setBit(33, self.HostIIN)
 iso_req.setBit(48, self.ZoneKeySet1["ZAK(ZMK)"][1:] + self.ZoneKeySet1["ZPK(ZMK)"][1:])
 iso_req.setBit(53, self.node_number)
 iso_req.setBit(70, '101')
 iso_req.setBit(100, self.SwitchLink_IIN)
 self.__storeISOMessage(iso_req, {"date_time_sent": d.strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S")})
 log.info("Send Keys under LMK : ZAK= %s, ZAK Check Value: %s ZPK = %s, ZPK Check Value: %s" % (self.ZoneKeySet1["ZAK(LMK)"], self.ZoneKeySet1["ZAK Check Value"], self.ZoneKeySet1["ZPK(LMK)"], self.ZoneKeySet1["ZPK Check Value"]))

 try:

 # send the Send Keys
 iso_send = iso_req.getNetworkISO()
 iso_send_hex = ByteUtils.HexToByte(iso_send[2:])

 self.log.debug(iso_req.dumpFields())
 self.log.info("Sending Key Exchange Request = [%s]" % ReadableAscii(iso_send))
 self.__send_message(iso_send_hex)

 self.s.settimeout(20.0)
 length_indicator = self.s.recv(2)
 if length_indicator == '':
 self.log.critical('Received a blank length indicator from switch... might be a disconnect')
 self.__setState("blank_response")
 else:
 size = struct.unpack('!H', length_indicator)[0]
 payload = self.s.recv(size)
 payload = ByteUtils.ByteToHex(payload)
 d = datetime.now()
 self.log.info(" Receiving Key Exchange Response = [%s]" % payload)
 if payload == '':
 self.log.critical('Received a blank response from switch... might be a disconnect')
 self.__setState("blank_response")
 else:
 iso_ans = AS2805(debug=False)
 iso_ans.setIsoContent(payload)
 self.log.debug(iso_ans.dumpFields())
 self.__storeISOMessage(iso_ans, {"date_time_received": d.strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S")})

 if iso_ans.getMTI() == '0830':
 if iso_ans.getBit(39) == '3030':

 Value = iso_ans.getBit(48)
 self.KMACs_KVC = Value[:6]
 self.KPEs_KVC = Value[6:]
 #self.log.info("KMACs_KVC = %s, KPEs_KVC = %s" % (self.KMACs_KVC, self.KPEs_KVC))
 if self.KMACs_KVC == self.ZoneKeySet1["ZAK Check Value"] and self.KPEs_KVC == self.ZoneKeySet1["ZPK Check Value"]:
 self.log.info("0820 Key Exchange successful: Check Values Match, ZAK Check Value= %s , ZPK Check Value = %s" % (self.ZoneKeySet1["ZAK Check Value"], self.ZoneKeySet1["ZPK Check Value"]))
 sql = """UPDATE sessions_as2805
 SET
 ZPK_LMK = '%s',
 ZPK_ZMK = '%s',
 ZPK_Check= '%s' ,
 ZAK_LMK= '%s',
 ZAK_ZMK = '%s',
 ZAK_Check ='%s',
 ZEK_LMK = '%s' ,
 ZEK_ZMK = '%s',
 ZEK_Check = '%s',
 keyset_number = '%s'
 WHERE host_id = '%s' and keyset_description = 'Send' """%\
 ( self.ZoneKeySet1["ZPK(LMK)"],
 self.ZoneKeySet1["ZPK(ZMK)"],
 self.ZoneKeySet1["ZPK Check Value"],
 self.ZoneKeySet1["ZAK(LMK)"],
 self.ZoneKeySet1["ZAK(ZMK)"],
 self.ZoneKeySet1["ZAK Check Value"],
 self.ZoneKeySet1["ZEK(LMK)"],
 self.ZoneKeySet1["ZEK(ZMK)"],
 self.ZoneKeySet1["ZEK Check Value"],
 self.node_number,
 self.host_id)

 cur.execute(sql)
 self.log.debug("Records=%s" % (cur.rowcount,))
 self.__setState("key_exchanged")

 self.__setState('session_key_ok')
 self.log.info("==== Key Exchange Sequence Completed Successfully====")
 self.last_key_exchange = datetime.now()

 else:
 self.log.error("Generate_a_Set_of_Zone_Keys: KVC Check Failed!!")
 else:
 self.log.error("0820 Response Code = %s, Key Exchange Failed" % (iso_ans.getBit(39)))
 except InvalidAS2805, ii:
 self.log.error(ii)
 self.s.close()
 self.s = None
 self.__setState("session_key_fail")
 except:
 self.log.exception("key_exchange_failed")
 self.__setState('key_exchange_failed')

 

Now that keys have successfully been exchanged, you can start submitting transactions.

When sending transactions encrypt data (pin / field) Send Keys, and when receiving data translate / decrypt using your receive keys, Generate MAC using Send MAC and Verify using Receive MAC.

  • TAK – Your key to generate and verify MACs
  • TEK – Your key to encrypt data and decrypt / translate

This concludes the implementation of Node to Node interfaces using AS2805 Standards.

Easy as Pie!

Thales 9000 with AS2805 Interchange & RSA EFTPOS Commands.

Interchange Cryptographic Keys 

Interchange keys are used to protect financial transactions initiated at Acquirer eftpos / ATM Terminals while in transit to the Issuer institution. Interchange keys may be either:

(a) PIN encrypting keys – used to protect the customer PIN from the point of origin to the point of authorisation. PIN encrypting keys are a specific instance of session keys;

(b) Session keys – used to secure, validate and protect the financial message. Session keys can be further qualified into those used in the terminal to Acquirer environment (terminal session keys) or on node to node links (interchange session keys);

(c) Key Encrypting Keys (KEK) – used to protect other keys (e.g. session keys) during exchange; or

(d) Transport Keys – used to protect keys (e.g. KEKs) during transport to the partner institution.

Cryptographic Algorithms 

DEA3 and DEA2 are the only approved algorithms for the protection of interchange information (full details of these algorithms may be found in the Australian standard AS 2805 part 5).

DEA3 keys are 128 bits in length (effectively 112 bits) and are generally referred to as triple DES or 3DES keys (the corresponding encryption algorithm is specified in AS 2805 part 5.4). Triple DES may also be acceptably implemented using a key length of 192 bits (effectively 168 bits).

DEA3 with a key length of 128 bits and DEA2 with key lengths equal to, or greater than 2048 bits are the minimum acceptable requirements for the effective protection of interchange information at the time of the issuance of this document.

In accordance with AS 2805 part 3, DEA3 must be used for PIN encipherment.

 Interchange Links 

For all Interchange Links, Issuers and Acquirers must ensure that:

(a) Security for Transactions processed over that Interchange Link complies with AS2805 Part 6;

(b) Message formats comply with AS2805 Part 2;

(c) Security of transactions from terminal to Acquirer and from Acquirer to Issuer complies with AS2805 Part 6;

(d) PIN security and encryption complies with AS2805 Parts 3 and 5.4;

(e) Key management practices comply with AS2805 Part 6.1;

In each case and as more particularly set out in Part 8:

(a) Message Authentication must apply to all Interchange Links;

(b) The Message Authentication Code (MAC) must be calculated using, as a minimum, a DEA 3 (128-bit) key, Triple DES and an algorithm conforming to AS2805 Part 4; and

(c) all interchange PIN and MAC cryptographic functions must be performed within a Tamper-responsive SCM

The Actual process using an Thales 9000 HSM (CECS Approved)

Now what we are clear on the actual requirements of CECS and APCA, lets  attempt to do this using  a Thales 9000.

Generate a Sponsor RSA key pair

This command is the first step as would be required to do this for all terminal commands.

  • This is done my using the HSM EI host Command, from the HSM base manual.
    • The input is the length of the RSA key set required,  and the length go the public key modulus.
  • The Public Key Verification Code should now be generated. This is done using the HSM H2 Command from the Australian Standards Support Manual.

The Public Key and the PVC are sent to your Interchange Partner via different paths, as per their direction. (lets call this OUR-Key and OUR-PVC)

Your Interchange partner will now do the same process and provide you with a Public Key and a PVC. (lets call this THEIR-Key and THEIR-PVC)

When we receive this Public Key from our Interchange Partner, the following should happen:

  • The PVC for the Key should be generated using the HSM H2 Command from the Australian Standards Support Manual.
  • The MAC for the Key should be generated using the HSM EO command from the HSM Base Manual.

We now have public keys exchanged and have them ready for use!!

Our Database should be looking like this:

|OUR-Key|OUR-PVC|THEIR-Key|THEIR-PVC|THEIR-MAC|GEN-PVC|

Now we have the Public keys exchanged and ready for use, we can generate our KEKs & send to Interchange Partner, and receive our KEKr from Interchange Partner;

  • To send our KEKs we will use the H4 command from the Australian Standards support manual.
  • To receive our KEKr we will use the H6 command from the Australian Standards support manual.

Once these are decrypted and stored in our key database we can generate and exchange our session MAC and PIN keys.

    • To generate and store our send keys we use the OI command from the Australian Standards support manual.
    • To receive and store our receive keys we use the OK command from the Australian Standards support manual.

Now we have all the keys in place we can start to process transactions.

    • To generate the MAC on a message there are a number of commands available, however as we are using the AS2805 standards we always recommend our customers use the C2 command from the Australian Standards support manual. This provides all the options required for the Australian environment.

Similarly to verify the MAC on a message there are a number of commands available, however as we are using the AS2805 standards we always recommend our customers use the C4 command from the Australian Standards support manual. This provides all the options required for the Australian environment.

Terminal Commands

Terminal Manufacturer will be injecting into the PINpads their Manufacturer Public Key. The MPK will be transmitted to SPONSOR securely. The MPK validity should be checked by verifying the PVC, this is achieved by generating a Public Key Verification Code This is done using the H2 command from the Australian Standards support manual. And the two values compared.

  • We also need to generate a PPASN, this is achieved using the AS2805 PK command.
  • The host will now send the SPK to the PINpad, the PINpad will now generate the KI (also known as KTI), and send to the host. This is recovered using the AS2805 host H8 command, which also returns the KCA, the KCA is encrypted under the LMK and the KTI.
  • Now we have the MPK and have verified it is genuine, we now need to generate a MAC for the Public Key, this is achieved using the Host EO command, this is used in subsequent processing. Note: this command is only available when the HSM is in Authorised State. We can now recover the PINpad Public from the MSK. This is achieved using the AS2805 H0 host command.
  • KCA is now used to create the TMK1 and TMK2 (also known as KEK1 & KEK2). These are generated using the C0 command.
  • Now we have the TMK’s in place we can use the TMK update commands.

Updating the Keys

  • When updating only TMK1 the AS2805 OU command is used.
  • When updating both TMK1 and TMK2 then the OW command is used.

Now we have the TMK’s in place and able to be updated, we can generate the Session Keys to be used for the PIN, MAC & optional encryption keys if required.

This is achieved using the AS2805 PI command. The PI command will generate the PIN, MAC, and optional Encryption keys.

  • Now we can have the session keys in place we can Decrypt the data, verify the MAC & verify the pin. The decrypt data & verify MAC steps depend on how it has been handled by the terminal. Has the terminal done the MAC first then encrypted the required data or has the terminal encrypted the data & then done the MAC. We have assumed that the Encrypt was done first.
  • Verify the MAC’s on the transactions from the terminal using the AS2805 C4.
  • Once the MAC has been verified we can then decrypt the required data with the AS2805 host command PW.
  • Now we have the required decrypted data you will need to either verify the PIN or Translate the PIN, to translate the PIN assuming the transaction is a debit card transaction. This is achieved using the AS2805 PO host command. To verify the PIN will use one of the following F0 or F2.

If you have translated the PIN we can form the message and generate a MAC for the message to be sent to Interchange Partner, this is achieved using the C2 command as detailed above in the Interchange messages.

The biggest problem we see with this are around the KEKs & KEKr is people get them around the wrong way. Your KEKs becomes the remote KEKr & vice versa. The AS2805 commands are designed to swap them over automatically. 

The other gotcha is we split the terminal side & the interchange side of the HSM, TMK (terminal master key) is like a KEK (ZMK (Zone master key)) but used on the terminal side of the network where a ZMK (KEKs & KEKr) is used for interchange side of the network.

 easy as Pie!